Regarding the claim : ''Islam is not practical. For example fasting in daylight at one of the poles would not makes sense in time of 24 hour night or day''
The question itself isnt practical. Who lives in the poles?? Poles arent suitable for life. Anyway my response is as below:
Qur'an has made it very clear :
''So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Suam (fasts) that month, [Glorious Qur’aan 2:185]''
Thus, when the opportunity of Ramadaan does not arrive, and the month of Ramadaan is not seen at all, then there is NO obligation to fast. The same applies to Prayers (Salaat) at such places because Allaah (SWT) says,
Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours. [Glorious Qur’aan 4:103]
So, when these hours are not found, no prayer is prescribed. The month of Ramadaan is according to *Lunar* calendar. Allaah (SWT) after prescribing fasting,
''The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’ân, [Glorious Qur’aan 2:185]''
It is clear that Ramadaan is a Lunar month. Each lunar month is made up of twenty-nine days and twelve hours and twenty-four minutes (29 days, 12 hours, 24 minutes), therefore, WHERE THE *LUNAR* MONTH IS NOT FOUND THERE IS NO FASTING!
Salaat is a time related obligation, so, when these hours are not found in South or North Poles, no prayer is prescribed.
Let me give you an example :
The Glorious Qur’aan tells us that both hands must be washed and/or wiped when performing ablution or Tayyamum. But, if a person does not have hands or a hand, how will he/she wash them?
In the same way, when there is no Ramadan, what it means to observe fasting in Ramadan?
This is the opinion of some scholars, other opines that the underlying purpose is fasting and prayer time is appointed where it is possible. If it is not possible to determine the timetable then the required worship will not be omitted. Worshipers will have to reckon a timetable and then observe fasting and prayers. It is safer to go by this opinion.
People do not inhabit the two Poles especially Muslims, because of glaciers and ice making it almost impossible to live there. Therefore fasting is not obligatory where there is no possibility of human life.